Effect of Fluoxetine Consumption on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Rats
Objectives: Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) widely used for depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fluoxetine on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups namely the control group (no medication), saline and fluoxetine dissolved in saline. In all groups, nickel titanium closed-coil spring was used between the left maxillary central incisor and first molar to exert 60g force at 2mm activation. Radiographs were taken at one and 21 days. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed. The distance between the first and second molar teeth, optical density of bone, periodontal ligament (PDL) width, lacuna length and depth and number of osteoclasts were measured and compared among the groups.
Results: Tooth movement significantly increased in the fluoxetine group (P=0.005). No significant differences were found in osteoclast count (P=0.069). The PDL width in the mesioapical region of root was significantly different among the groups (P=0.015). Statistical analysis did not show significant differences in depth or length of lacunae in any examined part of the root (P>0.05). Bone densitometry results showed that in fluoxetine group, density of bone in all four areas (alveolar bone, hard palate, skull and mandibular bone) significantly decreased from day one to day 21 (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: This study indicated that fluoxetine decreased bone density, which resulted in subsequently greater tooth movement in rats; however, further studies are needed on humans.