Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2017. 14(4):237-245.

Performance of Preschoolers’ Mothers and Senior Dental Students after Receiving Training on Fluoride Varnish Administration
Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Samaneh Razeghi, Zahra Chinipardaz, Hamideh Soleimannejad, Mohammad Javad kharrazifard

Abstract


Objectives: Fluoride varnish application is an effective way to prevent caries in children. We aimed to educate preschool children’s mothers on how to apply fluoride varnish and compare their performance with dental students and to assess their self-reported competency six months later.

Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight 4-6-year-old children presenting to toy houses of six randomly selected health centers in a non-affluent district of Tehran in 2014 were divided into two groups to receive fluoride varnish by their mothers and students. Mothers and senior dental students participated in a session consisting of lecture, discussion, and demonstration of fluoride varnish application for a child. Then, in three centers, mothers and in others, students applied fluoride varnish for preschoolers and their performance was evaluated. Six months later, mothers were asked to apply fluoride varnish again. Mann-Whitney U test, t-test, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression model were used for statistical analyses.

Results: The mean performance score was 9.74±0.22 (out of 10) for mothers and 9.71±0.15 for students (P=0.89). After six months, the mean performance score was 9.58 for mothers, which was not significantly different from that in the first session. The age and educational level of mothers were conversely correlated to their performance (P<0.05). Of mothers, 96% believed that they were competent to repeat fluoride varnish application for their children.

Conclusions: Mothers’ high performance score and the point that the majority of them felt competent to apply varnish for their children casts light on their potential key role in oral health promotion.


Keywords


Fluorides; Child, Preschool; Mothers; Oral Health

Full Text:

PDF

References


- Di Giuseppe G, Nobile CG, Marinelli A, Angelillo IF. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Pediatricians regarding the prevention of oral diseases in Italy. BMC Public Health. 2006 Jul;6:176.

- Drury TF, Horowitz AM, Ismail AI, Maertens MP, Rozier RG, Selwitz RH. Diagnosing and reporting early childhood caries for research purposes. A report of a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the Health Care Financing Administration. J Public Health Dent. 1999 Summer;59(3):192-7.

- Ramazani N, Reza Poureslami H, Ahmadi R, Ramazani M. Early childhood caries and the role of pediatricians in its prevention. Iranian J Pediatr Soc 2010;2(2):47-52.

- Daly B, Batchelor P, Treasure E, Watt R. Essential dental public health. 2 nd ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013:134-5.

- Samadzadeh H. Oral Health Status of Iranian Children. 1st ed. Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Deputy for Health, Oral Health Bureau, Tehran: 2004;20-22.

- Featherstone JD, Adair SM, Anderson MH, Berkowitz RJ, Bird WF, Crall JJ, et al. Caries management by risk assessment: consensus statement, April 2002. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2003 Mar;31(3):257-69.

- DenBesten P, Berkowitz R. Early childhood caries; an overview with reference to our experience in California. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2003 Feb;31(2):139-43.

- Marinho VC. Cochrane reviews of randomized trials of fluoride therapies for preventing dental caries. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2009 Sep;10(3):183-91.

- Azarpazhooh A, Main PA. Fluoride varnish in the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Hawaii Dent J. 2009 Jan-Feb;40(1):6-7.

- Lewis C, Lynch H, Richardson L. Fluoride varnish use in primary care: what do providers think? Pediatrics. 2005 Jan;115(1):e69-76.

- Arruda AO, Senthamarai Kannan R, Inglehart MR, Rezende CT, Sohn W. Effect of 5% fluoride varnish application on caries among school children in rural Brazil: a randomized controlled trial. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2012 Jun;40(3):267-76.

-. Serwint JR, Mungo R, Negrete VF, Duggan AK, Korsch BM. Child-rearing practices and nursing caries. Pediatrics. 1993 Aug;92(2):233-7.

- Pierce KM, Rozier RG, Vann WF Jr. Accuracy of pediatric primary care providers’ screening and referral for early childhood caries. Pediatrics. 2002 May;109(5):E82-2.

- Kranz AM, Rozier RG, Preisser JS, Stearns SC, Weinberger M, Lee JY. Comparing medical and dental providers of oral health services on early dental caries experience. Am J Public Health. 2014 Jul;104(7):e92-9.

- Mäkinen KK, Järvinen KL, Anttila CH, Luntamo LM, Vahlberg T. Topical xylitol administration by parents for the promotion of oral health in infants: a caries prevention experiment at a Finnish Public Health Centre. Int Dent J. 2013 Aug;63(4):210-24.

- Okunseri C, Szabo A, Jackson S, Pajewski NM, Garcia RI. Increased children’s access to fluoride varnish treatment by involving medical care providers: effect of a Medicaid policy change. Health Serv Res. 2009 Aug;44(4):1144-56.

- Rabiei S, Mohebbi SZ, Patja K, Virtanen JI. Physicians’ knowledge of and adherence to improving oral health. BMC Public Health. 2012 Oct 9;12:855.

- Rabiei S, Mohebbi SZ, Yazdani R, Virtanen JI. Primary care nurses’ awarenss of and willingness to perform children’s oral health care. BMC Oral Health. 2014 Mar;14:26.

- Saied-Moallemi Z, Virtanen J, Ghofranipour F, Murtomaa H. Influence of mothers’ oral health knowledge and attitudes on their children’s dental health. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2008 Jun;9(2):79-83.

- Carr S. The Foundation program assessment tools: an opportunity to enhance feedback to trainees? Postgrad Med J. 2006 Sep;82(971):576-9.

- Mohebbi SZ, Virtanen JI, Murtomaa H, Vahid-Golpayegani MO, Vehkalahti MM. Mothers as facilitators of oral hygiene in early childhood. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008 Jan;18(1):48-55.

- Slade GD, Rozier RG, Zeldin LP, Margolis PA. Training pediatric health care providers in prevention of dental decay: results from a randomized controlled trial. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007 Nov;7:176.

- Weinstein P, Harrison R, Benton T. Motivating

parents to prevent caries in their young children, One-year findings. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004 Jun;135(6):731-8.

- Berg J. Fluoride varnish application prevents caries in preschool children. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2007 Mar;7(1):23-4.

- Daly B, Batchelor P, Treasure E, Watt R. Essential dental public health. 2nd ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013:10.

- Charlton BG. Lectures are an effective teaching method because they exploit human evolved human nature to improve learning. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(6):1261-5.

- Rozier RG, Sutton BK, Bawden JW, Haupt K, Slade GD, King RS. Prevention of early childhood caries in North Carolina medical practices: implications for research and practice. J Dent Educ. 2003 Aug;67(8):876-85.

- Wamala S, Merlo J, Boström G. Inequity in access to dental care services explains current socioeconomic disparities in oral health: the Swedish National Surveys of Public Health 2004-2005. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006 Dec;60(12):1027-33.

- Thomson W, Poulton R, Milne B, Caspi A, Broughton JR, Ayers KM. Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health in childhood and adulthood in a birth cohort. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004 Oct;32(5):345-53.

- Weintraub JA, Ramos-Gomez F, Jue B, Shain S, Hoover CI, Featherstone JD, et al. Fluoride varnish efficacy in preventing early childhood caries. J Dent Res. 2006 Feb;85(2):172-6.

- Liu HY, Hung HC, Hsiao SY, Chen HS, Yen YY, Huang ST, et al. Impact of 24-month fluoride tablet program on children with disabilities in a non-fluoridated country. Res Dev Disabil. 2013 Sep;34(9):2598-605.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.