Efficacy of Modified Bioactive Glass for Dentin Remineralization and Obstruction of Dentinal Tubules
AbstractObjectives: This study assessed the efficacy of modified bioactive glass (MBG) for dentin remineralization and obstruction of dentinal tubules.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six dentin discs were made from 20 third molars and were stored in 12% lactic acid solution for two weeks to induce demineralization. The samples were divided into three groups (n=12): 1- BG, 2- BG modified with 5% strontium (Sr) and 3- BG modified with 10% Sr. After applying the BG, the samples were stored in artificial saliva for 7, 14 and 21 days. Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were used to assess remineralization. Also, 6 dentin discs were divided into three groups of BG, BG modified with 5% Sr and BG modified with 10% Sr, to examine tubular occlusion. The discs were etched using 0.5M of EDTA for two minutes and were stored in artificial saliva for 7 days. Changes in dentin surface morphology were evaluated under SEM.Results: Group 3 showed high rates of remineralization at days 7 and 14, although the rate decreased at day 21. Group 2 exhibited high rates of remineralization at days 7, 14 and 21. Dentinal tubules were partially occluded by BG and BG modified with 5% Sr, while they were almost completely obstructed after the use of BG modified with 10% Sr.Conclusions: Strontium increases remineralization. Addition of 10% Sr to BG enhances apatite formation; however, the apatite dissolves over time. Addition of 5% Sr to BG stabilizes the apatite lattice and increases the remineralization.
- Mehta AB, Kumari V, Jose R, Izadikhah V. Remineralization potential of bioactive glass and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on initial carious lesion: An in-vitro pH-cycling study. J Conserv Dent. 2014 Jan-Feb;17(1):3-7.
- Narayana SS, Deepa VK, Ahamed S, Sathish ES, Meyappan R, Satheesh Kumar KS. Remineralization efficiency of bioactive glass on artificially induced carious lesion an in-vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2014 Jan-Mar;32(1):19-25.
- Madan N, Madan N, Sharma V, Pardal D, Madan N. Tooth remineralization using bio-active glass - A novel approach. J Adv Oral Res. 2011 May;2(2):45-50.
- Kawasaki K, Ruben J, Tsuda H, Huysmans MC, Takagi O. Relationship between mineral distributions in dentine lesions and subsequent remineralization in vitro. Caries Res. 2000 Sep-Oct;34(5):395-403.
- Narongdej T, Sakoolnamarka R, Boonroung T. The effectiveness of a calcium sodium phosphosilicate desensitizer in reducing cervical dentin hypersensitivity: a pilot study. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010 Aug;141(8):995-999.
- Forsback AP, Areva S, Salonen JI. Mineralization of dentin induced by treatment with bioactive glass S53P4 in vitro. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004 Feb;62(1):14-20.
- Bertassoni LE, Habelitz S, Marshall SJ, Marshall GW. Mechanical recovery of dentin following remineralization in vitro--an indentation study. J Biomech. 2011 Jan;44(1):176-181.
- Liu Y, Kim YK, Dai L, Li N, Khan SO, Pashley DH, et al. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical mineralization of collagen. Biomaterials. 2011 Feb;32(5):1291-1300.
- Wang Z, Jiang T, Sauro S, Wang Y, Thompson I, Watson TF, et al. Dentine remineralization induced by two bioactive glasses developed for air abrasion purposes. J Dent. 2011 Nov;39(11):746-756.
- Ramamoorthi S, Nivedhitha MS. Effectiveness of bioactive glass containing dentifrice on dentin hypersensitivity- A systematic review. JPR: BioMedRx: An International Journal. 2013 Aug;1(8):803-809.
- Thuy TT, Nakagaki H, Kato K, Hung PA, Inukai J, Tsuboi S, et al. Effect of strontium in combination with fluoride on enamel remineralization in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2008 Jun;53(11):1017-1022.
- Gentleman E, Fredholm YC, Jell G, Lotfibakhshaiesh N, O'Donnell MD, Hill RG, et al. The effects of strontium-substituted bioactive glasses on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. Biomaterials. 2010 May;31(14):3949-3956.
- Gillam D, Orchardson R. Advances in the treatment of root dentine sensitivity: mechanisms and treatment principles. Endod Topics. 2006 Mar;13(1):13-33.
- Lynch E, Brauer DS, Karpukhina N, Gillam DG, Hill RG. Multi-component bioactive glasses of varying fluoride content for treating dentin hypersensitivity. Dent Mater. 2012 Feb;28(2):168-178.
- Gu LS, Huffman BP, Arola DD, Kim YK, Mai S, Elsalanty ME, et al. Changes in stiffness of resin-infiltrated demineralized dentin after remineralization by a bottom-up biomimetic approach. Acta Biomater. 2010 Apr;6(4):1453-1461.
- Ana ID, Matsuya S, Ohta M, Ishikawa K. Effects of added bioactive glass on the setting and mechanical properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Biomaterials. 2003 Aug;24(18):3061-3067.
- Banerjee A, Hajatdoost-Sani M, Farrell S, Thompson I. A clinical evaluation and comparison of bioactive glass and sodium bicarbonate air-polishing powders. J Dent. 2010 Jun;38(6):475-479.
- Andersson ÖH, Kangasniemi I. Calcium phosphate formation at the surface of bioactive glass in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991 Aug;25(8):1019-1030.
- Burwell AK, Litkowski LJ, Greenspan DC. Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin): remineralization potential. Adv Dent Res. 2009 Jul;21(1):35-39.
- Hench LL, Paschall HA. Direct chemical bond of bioactive glass‐ceramic materials to bone and muscle. J Biomed Mater Res. 1973;7(3):25-42.
- Peitl O, Zanotto ED, Hench LL. Highly bioactive P2O5–Na2O–CaO–SiO2 glass-ceramics. J Non Cryst Solids. 2001 Nov;292(1-3):115-126.
- Hassanein OE, El-Brolossy T. An investigation about the remineralization potential of bio-active glass on artificially carious enamel and dentin using Raman spectroscopy. Egypt J Solids. 2006 Jun;29(1):69-80.
- Boskey AL, Mendelsohn R. Infrared spectroscopic characterization of mineralized tissues. Vib Spectrosc. 2005
- Vollenweider M, Brunner TJ, Knecht S, Grass RN, Zehnder M, Imfeld T, et al. Remineralization of human dentin using ultrafine bioactive glass particles. Acta Biomater. 2007 Nov;3(6):936-943.
- Prabhakar AR, Paul M J, Basappa N. Comparative Evaluation of the Remineralizing Effects and Surface Micro hardness of Glass Ionomer Cements Containing Bioactive Glass (S53P4): An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2010 May-Aug;3(2):69-77.
- Lotfibakhshaiesh N, Brauer DS, Hill RG. Bioactive glass engineered coatings for Ti6Al4V alloys: influence of strontium substitution for calcium on sintering behaviour. J Non Cryst Solids. 2010 Oct;356(44):2583-2590.
- Bonnelye E, Chabadel A, Saltel F, Jurdic P. Dual effect of strontium ranelate: stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and inhibition of osteoclast formation and resorption in vitro. Bone. 2008 Jan;42(1):129-138.
- Du Min Q, Bian Z, Jiang H, Greenspan DC, Burwell AK, Zhong J, et al. Clinical evaluation of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate (novamin) for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Am J Dent. 2008 Aug;21(4):210-214.
- Tai BJ, Bian Z, Jiang H, Greenspan DC, Zhong J, Clark AE, et al. Anti‐gingivitis effect of a dentifrice containing bioactive glass (NovaMin) particulate. J Clin Periodontol. 2006 Feb;33(2):86-91.
- Isaac J, Nohra J, Lao J, Jallot E, Nedelec JM, Berdal A, et al. Effects of strontium-doped bioactive glass on the differentiation of cultured osteogenic cells. Eur Cell Mater. 2011 Feb 8;21:130-143.
- Shahid S, Hassan U, Billington RW, Hill RG, Anderson P. Glass ionomer cements: effect of strontium substitution on esthetics, radiopacity and fluoride release. Dent Mater. 2014Mar;30(3):308-13.
- Gupta AK, Sharma N, Bramta M. Dentin tubular occlusion with bioactive glass containing dentifrice and Gluma desensitizer A comparative SEM evaluation. Dent J Adv Studies. 2014 feb;2(1):16-21.