Two-Dimensional Analysis of the Size of Nasopharynx and Adenoids in Non-Syndromic Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients Using Lateral Cephalograms
AbstractObjectives: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common congenital anomaly of the head and neck region. The upper airway in CLP patients is affected by retarded maxillary growth. Small size of the nasopharynx can also lead to mouth breathing. This study aimed to compare the size of nasopharynx and adenoids in non-syndromic unilateral CLP (NSUCLP) patients and healthy controls two-dimensionally on lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 30 children with NSUCLP (mean age of 11.3 years) and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls with class I skeletal relationship. The bony boundaries of the nasopharynx, nasopharyngeal airway and adenoids were outlined on lateral cephalograms and their surface area was calculated and compared between the two groups. The percentage of nasopharynx occupied by the adenoids was calculated for each individual and compared between the two groups using independent t-test. Results: Size of nasopharynx in NSUCLP children was significantly smaller than that in healthy controls (P=0.0001). Size of adenoids was significantly larger in NSUCLP children (P=0.0001). Size of nasopharyngeal airway was smaller in NSUCLP patients than controls (P=0.0001). Percentage of nasopharynx occupied by the adenoids was significantly greater in NSUCLP patients (P=0.0001). Conclusions: The size of nasopharynx is smaller while the size of adenoids is larger in NSUCLP children compared to healthy controls; this can lead to mouth breathing and velopharyngeal incompetence.
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