Polymerization Shrinkage of Five Bulk-Fill Composite Resins in Comparison with a Conventional Composite Resin
Objectives: The polymerization shrinkage of methacrylate-based composites is among the most important causes of failure of composite restorations. The manufacturers claim that bulk-fill composites have a lower polymerization shrinkage than conventional composites. This study aimed to assess the polymerization shrinkage of five bulk-fill composites in comparison with a conventional composite.
Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, composite discs (n=30) were fabricated using everX Posterior (EXP), Filtek Bulk-Fill Posterior (FBP), SonicFill 2 (SF2), Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill (TNB), X-tra fil (XF), and Filtek Z250 conventional composite at the center of a metal ring bonded to a microscope slide and were covered with a coverslip. This assembly was transferred to a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). Light-curing (1200 mW/cm2) was performed from underneath the slide for 30 seconds. The deflecting disc method and LVDT were used to assess the dimensional changes of the samples (indicative of polymerization shrinkage) at 1, 30, 60, and 1800 seconds following the onset of light irradiation. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test.
Results: The groups were significantly different regarding polymerization shrinkage (P<0.002). The polymerization shrinkage of the tested composites following the onset of light irradiation ranged from 0.19 to 3.03. EXP showed a significantly higher polymerization shrinkage than other composites at 30, 60, and 1800 seconds after light irradiation, while XF showed the lowest polymerization shrinkage at the aforementioned time points.
Conclusions: The tested bulk-fill composites had a polymerization shrinkage similar to that of the conventional composite.
Pgdhhm AL. Polymerization shrinkage of composite resins: a review. Journal of Medical and Dental Science Research. 2015;2(10):23-7.
Alrahlah A, Silikas N, Watts DC. Post-cure depth of cure of bulk fill dental resin-composites. Dent Mater. 2014 Feb;30(2):149-54.
Yap AU, Wang HB, Siow KS, Gan LM. Polymerization shrinkage of visible-light-cured composites. Oper Dent. 2000 Mar-Apr;25(2):98-103.
Al Sunbul H, Silikas N, Watts DC. Polymerization shrinkage kinetics and shrinkage-stress in dental resin-composites. Dent Mater. 2016 Aug;32(8):998-1006.
Rosatto CM, Bicalho AA, Veríssimo C, Bragança GF, Rodrigues MP, Tantbirojn D, et al. Mechanical properties, shrinkage stress, cuspal strain and fracture resistance of molars restored with bulk-fill composites and incremental filling technique. J Dent. 2015 Dec;43(12):1519-28.
Goracci C, Cadenaro M, Fontanive L, Giangrosso G, Juloski J, Vichi A, et al. Polymerization efficiency and flexural strength of low-stress restorative composites. Dent Mater. 2014 Jun;30(6):688-94.
Finan L, Palin WM, Moskwa N, McGinley EL, Fleming GJ. The influence of irradiation potential on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of two bulk-fill flowable RBC base materials. Dent Mater. 2013 Aug;29(8):906-12.
Abed YA, Sabry HA, Alrobeigy NA. Degree of conversion and surface hardness of bulk-fill composite versus incremental-fill composite. Tanta Dental Journal. 2015 Jun 1;12(2):71-80.
Vinagre A, Ramos J, Alves S, Messias A, Alberto N, Nogueira R. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors. Int J Biomater. 2016;2016:7134283.
F F, Ar D, Z H. The Effect of Bulk Depth and Irradiation Time on the Surface Hardness and Degree of Cure of Bulk-Fill Composites. J Dent Biomater. 2016 Sep;3(3):284-291.
Garcia D, Yaman P, Dennison J, Neiva G. Polymerization shrinkage and depth of cure of bulk fill flowable composite resins. Oper Dent. 2014 Jul-Aug;39(4):441-8.
Benetti AR, Havndrup-Pedersen C, Honoré D, Pedersen MK, Pallesen U. Bulk-fill resin composites: polymerization contraction, depth of cure, and gap formation. Oper Dent. 2015 Mar-Apr;40(2):190-200.
Lee IB, Cho BH, Son HH, Um CM, Lim BS. The effect of consistency, specimen geometry and adhesion on the axial polymerization shrinkage measurement of light cured composites. Dent Mater. 2006 Nov;22(11):1071-9.
Watts DC, Marouf AS. Optimal specimen geometry in bonded-disk shrinkage-strain measurements on light-cured biomaterials. Dent Mater. 2000 Nov;16(6):447-51.
Labella R, Lambrechts P, Van Meerbeek B, Vanherle G. Polymerization shrinkage and elasticity of flowable composites and filled adhesives. Dent Mater. 1999 Mar;15(2):128-37.
Miyazaki M, Hinoura K, Onose H, Moore BK. Effect of filler content of light-cured composites on bond strength to bovine dentine. J Dent. 1991 Oct;19(5):301-3.
Ferracane JL. Developing a more complete understanding of stresses produced in dental composites during polymerization. Dent Mater. 2005 Jan;21(1):36-42.
Ferracane JL. Buonocore Lecture. Placing dental composites--a stressful experience. Oper Dent. 2008 May-Jun;33(3):247-57.
Patel MP, Braden M, Davy KW. Polymerization shrinkage of methacrylate esters. Biomaterials. 1987 Jan;8(1):53-6.
Venhoven BA, de Gee AJ, Davidson CL. Light initiation of dental resins: dynamics of the polymerization. Biomaterials. 1996 Dec;17(24):2313-8.
Sideridou I, Tserki V, Papanastasiou G. Effect of chemical structure on degree of conversion in light-cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins. Biomaterials. 2002 Apr;23(8):1819-29.
Braga RR, Ferracane JL. Contraction stress related to degree of conversion and reaction kinetics. J Dent Res. 2002 Feb;81(2):114-8.
Atai M, Watts DC, Atai Z. Shrinkage strain-rates of dental resin-monomer and composite systems. Biomaterials. 2005 Aug;26(24):5015-20.
Sideridou ID, Karabela MM, Vouvoudi ECh. Physical properties of current dental nanohybrid and nanofill light-cured resin composites. Dent Mater. 2011 Jun;27(6):598-607.
Tsujimoto A, Barkmeier WW, Takamizawa T, Latta MA, Miyazaki M. Mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of short fiber-reinforced resin composite. Dent Mater J. 2016;35(3):418-24.
Yu P, Yap A, Wang XY. Degree of Conversion and Polymerization Shrinkage of Bulk-Fill Resin-Based Composites. Oper Dent. 2017 Jan/Feb;42(1):82-89.
Jang JH, Park SH, Hwang IN. Polymerization shrinkage and depth of cure of bulk-fill resin composites and highly filled flowable resin. Oper Dent. 2015 Mar-Apr;40(2):172-80.
Blackham JT, Vandewalle KS, Lien W. Properties of hybrid resin composite systems containing prepolymerized filler particles. Oper Dent. 2009 Nov-Dec;34(6):697-702.
Fronza BM, Rueggeberg FA, Braga RR, Mogilevych B, Soares LE, Martin AA, et al. Monomer conversion, microhardness, internal marginal adaptation, and shrinkage stress of bulk-fill resin composites. Dent Mater. 2015 Dec;31(12):1542-51.
Dewaele M, Truffier-Boutry D, Devaux J, Leloup G. Volume contraction in photocured dental resins: the shrinkage-conversion relationship revisited. Dent Mater. 2006 Apr;22(4):359-65
Kalliecharan D, Germscheid W, Price RB, Stansbury J, Labrie D. Shrinkage stress kinetics of Bulk Fill resin-based composites at tooth temperature and long time. Dent Mater. 2016 Nov;32(11):1322-1331.