Effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Using Indocyanine Green Doped with Chitosan Nanoparticles on Biofilm Formation-Related Gene Expression of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Objectives: Eradication of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. action-mycetemcomitans), as an opportunistic periodontopathogen, and inhibition of its virulence factor expression require a new adjunctive therapeutic method. In this study, we accessed the expression level of rcpA gene, as a virulence factor associated with A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm formation, following treatment by antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using indocyanine green (ICG) doped with chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs@ICG).
Materials and Methods: CS-NPs@ICG was synthesized and examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 33384 strain was treated with CS-NPs@ICG, as a photosensitizer, which was excited with a diode laser at the wavelength of 810 nm with the energy density of 31.2 J/cm2. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to determine the changes in rcpA gene expression level.
Results: Synthetized CS-NPs@ICG was confirmed via SEM. The results revealed that CS-NPs@ICG-mediated aPDT could significantly decrease rcpA gene expression to 13.2-fold (P<0.05). There was a remarkable difference between aPDT using CS-NPs@ICG and ICG (P<0.05). The diode laser, ICG, and CS-NPs@ICG were unable to significantly downregulate rcpA gene expression (P>0.05).
Conclusion: aPDT with CS-NPs@ICG leads to a decrease of the virulence factor of A. actinomycetemcomitans and can be used as an adjunct to routine treatments for successful periodontal therapy in vivo.
Torrungruang K, Jitpakdeebordin S, Charatkulangkun O, Gleebbua Y. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Treponema denticola / Prevotella intermedia Co-Infection Are Associated with Severe Periodontitis in a Thai Population. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0136646.
Arenas Rodrigues VA, de Avila ED, Nakano V, Avila-Campos MJ. Qualitative, quantitative and genotypic evaluation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from individuals with different periodontal clinical conditions. Anaerobe. 2018;52:50-58.
Mahalakshmi K, Krishnan P, Chandrasekaran SC. Detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin and fimbria-associated protein gene genotypes among periodontitis patients and healthy controls: A case-control study. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2018;15(3):185-190.
Deas DE, Moritz AJ, Sagun RS Jr, Gruwell SF, Powell CA. Scaling and root planing vs. conservative surgery in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2016;71(1):128-139.
Saitawee D, Teerakapong A, Morales NP, Jitprasertwong P, Hormdee D. Photodynamic therapy of Curcuma longa extract stimulated with blue light against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2018;22:101-105.
Azizi A, Mousavian S, Taheri S, Lawaf S, Gonoudi E, Rahimi A. Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy with two mediators against Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2018;21:357-362.
Ormond AB, Freeman HS. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy. Materials (Basel). 2013;6(3):817-840.
Sasaki Y, Hayashi JI, Fujimura T, Iwamura Y, Yamamoto G, Nishida E, et al. New Irradiation Method with Indocyanine Green-Loaded Nanospheres for Inactivating Periodontal Pathogens. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18:e154.
Chen R, Wang X, Yao X, Zheng X, Wang J, Jiang X. Near-IR-triggered photothermal/photodynamic dual-modality therapy system via chitosan hybrid nanospheres. Biomaterials. 2013;34(33):8314-22.
Govindarajan C, Ramasubramaniam S, Gomathi T, Narmadha Devi A, Sudha PN. Sorption studies of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution using nanochitosan-carboxymethyl cellulose blend. Arch Appl Sci Res. 2011;3:127-138.
Hu X, Huang YY, Wang Y, Wang X, Hamblin MR. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to Control Clinically Relevant Biofilm Infections. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:1299.
Cieplik F, Tabenski L, Buchalla W, Maisch T. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for inactivation of biofilms formed by oral key pathogens. Front Microbiol. 2014;5:405.
Smith KP, Ruiz T, Mintz KP.Inner-membrane protein MorC is involved in fimbriae production and biofilm formation in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Microbiology. 2016;162:513-525.
Benso B. Virulence factors associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and their role in promoting periodontal diseases. Virulence. 2016;13:1-4.
Smiley CJ, Tracy SL, Abt E, Michalowicz BS, John MT, Gunsolley J, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis by means of scaling and root planing with or without adjuncts. J Am Dent Assoc. 2015;146:508-524.
Azarpazhooh A, Shah PS, Tenenbaum HC, Goldberg MB. The effect of photodynamic therapy for periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Periodontol. 2010;81:4-14.
Atieh MA. Photodynamic therapy as an adjunctive treatment for chronic periodontitis: A meta-analysis. Lasers Med Sci 2010;25:605-613.
Sgolastra F, Petrucci A, Severino M, Graziani F, Gatto R, Monaco A. Adjunctive photodynamic therapy to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol 2013;40:514-526.
Abrahamse H, Hamblin MR. New photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. Biochem J. 2016;473(4):347-364.
Nagahara A, Mitani A, Fukuda M, Yamamoto H, Tahara K, Morita I, et al. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using a diode laser with a potential new photosensitizer, indocyanine green-loaded nanospheres, may be effective for the clearance of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Periodontal Res 2013;48:591-599.
Gomes AJ, Lunardi LO, Marchetti JM, Lunardi CN, Tedesco AC. Indocyanine green nanoparticles useful for photomedicine. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2006;24(4):514-521.
Saxena V, Sadoqi M , Shao J. Degradation kinetics of indocyanine green in aqueous solution. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2003;92(10):2090-2097
Holzer W, Mauerer M, Penzkofer A, Szeimies RM, Abels C, Landthaler M, et al. Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, 1998;47(2-3):155-164.
Panyam J, Labhasetwar V. Biodegradable nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to cells and tissue. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2003;55(3):329-347.
Naqvi S, Mohiyuddin S, Gopinath P. Niclosamide loaded biodegradable chitosan nanocargoes: an in vitro study for potential application in cancer therapy. R Soc Open Sci. 2017;4:170611.
Pourhajibagher M, Chiniforush N, Monzavi A, Barikani HR, Monzavi MM, Sobhani Sh, et al. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with Curcumin on biofilm-associated gene expression profile of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Journal of dentistry (Tehran, Iran). 2018;15(3):169-177.
Pourhajibagher M, Monzavi A, Chiniforush N, Monzavi MM, Sobhani Sh, Shahabi S, et al. Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR analysis of expression stability of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans fimbria-associated gene in response to photodynamic therapy. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017;18:78-82.
Pourhajibagher M, Chiniforush N, Monzavi A, Sobhani Sh, Monzavi MM, Bahador A. Monitoring gene expression of rcpA from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans versus antimicrobial photodynamic therapy by relative quantitative real-time PCR. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017;19:51-55.
Copyright (c) 2019 Frontiers in Dentistry
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.