Effects of Amoxicillin on the Structure and Mineralization of Dental Enamel and Dentin in Wistar Rats
Objectives: The development of teeth is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Amoxicillin is a widely prescribed semi-synthetic antibiotic. Its most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect produced by amoxicillin administration on dental enamel and dentin in Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: Twelve pregnant adult Wistar rats were equally divided into four different groups. Negative controls were prescribed with a saline solution. Positive controls were prescribed with tetracycline (130 mg/kg). The other two groups were treated with amoxicillin doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg (every 8 hours), respectively. The treatments were daily administered by oral gavage from the 13th gestation day to the end of gestation. After birth, the offspring also received the same treatment as their mothers from day one to day twelve. After 24 hours, the newborns were sacrificed, the jaws were dissected, and the first molar teeth were collected. The samples were fixed in 10% for¬maldehyde solution and were histomorphologically and histopathologically observed to determine enamel and dentin abnormalities.
Results: The mean ameloblastic layer thickness, enamel thickness, odontoblastic layer thickness, and dentin thickness were significantly different in the tetracycline group and the amoxicillin 50 and 100 mg/kg groups compared to the control group. Also, dentin hypomineralization and vacuolization of the odontoblastic layer were observed in the tetracycline- and amoxicillin- treated groups.
Conclusions: This study showed that amoxicillin interferes with amelogenesis and dentinogenesis and reduces enamel and dentin thickness.
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