Cytotoxicity of the Ingredients of Commonly Used Toothpastes and Mouthwashes on Human Gingival Fibroblasts
Objectives: Toothpastes and mouthwashes contain ingredients that may be toxic for oral mucosal tissues. This study aimed to assess the cytotoxicity of the ingredients of commonly used toothpastes and mouthwashes.
Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 16 toothpastes and four mouthwashes widely available in the Iranian market. First, the concentration of six main ingredients of these products, namely sodium fluoride (NaF), sodium lauryl sulfate, cocamidopropyl betaine, zinc lactate, paraben, and sodium benzoate, was determined. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of these materials for human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). The MTT assay was performed at 1, 15, and 30 minutes following exposure to five concentrations of each material in triplicate (according to the concentrations obtained in the isolation step). Data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: The difference in the cytotoxicity of the materials was statistically significant (P<0.001). Cytotoxicity was time- and concentration-dependent; by an increase in the concentration of the materials, their cytotoxicity increased over time. The cytotoxicity of sodium lauryl sulfate and cocamidopropyl betaine was >90%. The cytotoxicity of NaF varied from 25% to 70%, and the cytotoxicity of all concentrations of zinc lactate and sodium benzoate was <50% for HGFs.
Conclusion: To decrease the cytotoxic effects of toothpastes, sodium lauryl sulfate and cocamidopropyl betaine should be replaced with safer detergents, and the concentration of fluoride should be decreased to 400 parts per million (ppm). Alternatively, fluoride may be replaced with other antibacterial and cariostatic agents.
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