Antimicrobial Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles Incorporated in an Orthodontic Adhesive: An Animal Study

  • Abbas Bahador Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Baharnaz Ayatollahi Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Azam Akhavan Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
  • Maryam Pourhajibagher Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Javad Kharazifard Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Ahmad Sodagar Mail Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Nanoparticles, Silver, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Dental Bonding, Orthodontic Brackets, Rats


Objectives: This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporated in Transbond XT orthodontic adhesive used in rats.
Materials and Methods: Transbond XT orthodontic adhesive containing 0%, 1%, 5% and 10% AgNPs was experimentally produced. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=7) of control (0% AgNPs), 1% AgNPs, 5% AgNPs and 10% AgNPs. After anesthetizing the rats, one drop (10 μm) of the adhesive was applied on the central incisor, and light-cured for 20 s. Transbond XT composite (1×1×1 mm) was also applied. Another 10-μm drop was applied over it, and light-cured for 40 s. Biofilm test was carried out, and the number of colony forming units (CFUs) of Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) in the saliva of rats was counted at baseline and 24 h after the application of adhesive. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test.
Results: In presence of 5% and 10% AgNPs, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus counts were significantly lower than those in the control and 1% AgNP groups (P<0.05). The S. mutans colony count was significantly lower in presence of all concentrations of AgNPs compared with the control group (P<0.05). The S. mutans colony count in 10% AgNP group was significantly lower than that in 1% and 5% AgNP groups (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles have dose-dependent antimicrobial effects; 5% concentration is the minimum concentration of AGNPs with optimal antimicrobial efficacy against all strains evaluated in this study.


1. Gorelick L, Geiger AM, Gwinnett AJ. Incidence of white spot formation after bonding and banding. Am J Orthod. 1982 Feb;81(2):93-8.
2. Li F, Weir MD, Chen J, Xu HH. Comparison of quaternary ammonium-containing with nano-silver-containing adhesive in antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity. Dent Mater. 2013 Apr;29(4):450-61.
3. Cheng L, Weir MD, Xu HH, Antonucci JM, Kraigsley AM, Lin NJ, et al. Antibacterial amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposites with a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate and silver nanoparticles. Dent Mater. 2012 May;28(5):561-72.
4. Ahmadi F, Abolghasemi S, Parhizgari N, Moradpour F. Effect of silver nanoparticles on common bacteria in hospital surfaces. Jundishapur J of Microbiol. 2013;6(3):209-14.
5. Sadeghi R, Owlia P, Taleghani F, Sharif F. An in-vitro comparison between antimicrobial activity of nanosilver and chlorhexidine against Streptococcus sangunis and Actinomyces viscosus. J Islam Dent Assoc Iran 2011;23(4):225-31.
6. Ahn SJ, Lee SJ, Kook JK, Lim BS. Experimental antimicrobial orthodontic adhesives using nanofillers and silver nanoparticles. Dent Mater. 2009 Feb;25(2):206-13.
7. Becker MR, Paster BJ, Leys EJ, Moeschberger ML, Kenyon SG, Galvin JL, et al. Molecular analysis of bacterial species associated with childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Mar;40(3):1001-9.
8. Badet C, Thebaud NB. Ecology of lactobacilli in the oral cavity: a review of literature. Open Microbiol J. 2008;2:38-48.
9. Nishikawara F, Nomura Y, Imai S, Senda A, Hanada N. Evaluation of cariogenic bacteria. Eur J Dent. 2007 Jan;1(1):31-9.
10. Yin IX, Zhang J, Zhao IS, Mei ML, Li Q, Chu CH. The antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles and its application in dentistry. Int J Nanomedicine. 2020 Apr;15:2555-62.
11. Mazur P, Skiba-Kurek I, Mrowiec P, Karczewska E, Drożdż R. Synergistic ROS-associated antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles and gentamicin against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Int J Nanomedicine. 2020 May;15:3551-62.
12. Marin S, Vlasceanu GM, Tiplea RE, Bucur IR, Lemnaru M, Marin MM, et al. Applications and toxicity of silver nanoparticles: a recent review. Curr Top Med Chem. 2015 Aug;15(16):1596-604.
13. Tomich M, Planet PJ, Figurski DH. The tad locus: postcards from the widespread colonization island. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007 May;5(5):363-75.
14. Bahador A, Lesan S, Kashi N. Effect of xylitol on cariogenic and beneficial oral streptococci: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. Iran J Microbiol. 2012 Jun;4(2):75-81.
15. Sule J, Korosi T, Hucker A, Varga L. Evaluation of culture media for selective enurmeration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Braz J Microbiol. 2014 Oct;45(3):1023-30.
16. Shirazi M, Nilforoushan D, Alghasi H, Dehpour AR. The role of nitric oxide in orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Angle Orthod. 2002 Jun;72(3):211-5.
17. Bürgers R, Eidt A, Frankenberger R, Rosentritt M, Schweikl H, Handel G, et al. The anti-adherence activity and bactericidal effect of microparticulate silver additives in composite resin materials. Arch Oral Biol. 2009 Jun;54(6):595-601.
18. Gerbo LR, Lacefield WR, Wells BR, Russell CM. The effect of enamel preparation on the tensile bond strength of orthodontic composite resin. Angle Orthod. 1992 Winter;62(4):275-81.
19. Breed RS, Dotterrer WD. The number of colonies allowable on satisfactory agar plates. J Bacteriol. 1916 May;1(3):321-31.
20. Velazquez-Enriquez U, Scougall-Vilchis RJ, Contreras-Bulnes R, Flores-Estrada J, Uematsu S, Yamaguchi R. Adhesion of Streptococci to various orthodontic composite resins. Aust Dent J. 2013 Mar;58(1):101-5.
21. Sehgal V, Shetty VS, Mogra S, Bhat G, Eipe M, Jacob S, et al. Evaluation of antimicrobial and physical properties of orthodontic composite resin modified by addition of antimicrobial agents--an in-vitro study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007 Apr;131(4):525-9.
22. Wong KK. Silver nanoparticles in medicine: is the panacea here. Nanomedicine: nanotechnology. Biol Med. 2012;8(6):935-40.
23. Zhang R, Zhang W, Bai X, Song X, Wang C, Gao X, et al. Discussion on the development of nano Ag/TiO 2 coating bracket and its antibacterial property and biocompatibility in orthodontic treatment. Pack J Pharm Sci. 2015
24. Zhang K, Cheng L, Imazato S, Antonucci JM, Lin NJ, Lin-Gibson S, et al. Effects of dual antibacterial agents MDPB and nano-silver in primer on microcosm biofilm, cytotoxicity and dentine bond properties. J Dent. 2013 May;41(5):464-74.
25. Cheng L, Weir MD, Xu HH, Antonucci JM, Lin NJ, Lin-Gibson S, et al. Effect of amorphous calcium phosphate and silver nanoparticles on dental plaque microcosm biofilm. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2012 Jul;100(5):1378-86.
26. Kreth J, Merritt J, Shi W, Qi F. Competition and coexistence between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in the dental biofilm. J Bacteriol. 2005 Nov;187(21):7193-203.
27. Rodríguez Chávez JA, Barceló Santana FH, Yáñez SA, Arenas Alatorre JÁ. Comparison of the shear bond strength of brackets between two adhesive systems (SEP and MIP Transbond) at 60 minutes and 24 hours. Rev. Mex. de Ortod. 2013 Oct;1(1):38-43.
28. Fritz JV, Desai MS, Shah P, Schneider JG, Wilmes P. From meta-omics to causality: experimental models for human microbiome research. Microbiome. 2013 May;1(1):14.
29. Sodagar A, Akhavan A, Hashemi E, Sodagar K. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of conventional orthodontic composite containing silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Prog Orthod. 2016 Dec;17(1):1-7.
30. Choi O, Yu CP, Esteban Fernández G, Hu Z. Interactions of nanosilver with Escherichia coli cells in planktonic and biofilm cultures. Water Res. 2010 Dec;44(20):6095-103.
31. Hernández-Sierra JF, Ruiz F, Pena DC, Martínez-Gutiérrez F, Martínez AE, Guillén AD, et al. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans to nanoparticles of silver, zinc oxide, and gold. Nanomed-Nanotechnol. 2008 Sep;4(3):237-40.
32. Miresmaeili A, Atai M, Mansouri K, Farhadian N. Effect of nanosilver incorporation on antibacterial properties and bracket bond strength of composite resin. Iran J Orthod. 2012;7:14-9.
33. Beer C, Foldbjerg R, Hayashi Y, Sutherland DS, Autrup H. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles - nanoparticle or silver ion? Toxicol Lett. 2012 Feb;208(3):286-92.
34. Zhang T, Wang L, Chen Q, Chen C. Cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles. Yonsei Med J. 2014 Mar;55(2):283-91.
How to Cite
Bahador A, Ayatollahi B, Akhavan A, Pourhajibagher M, Kharazifard MJ, Sodagar A. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles Incorporated in an Orthodontic Adhesive: An Animal Study. Front Dent. 17.
Original Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)